How do I reference a quote?


You must reference the work from which you got the quotation. The citation will always include the Author and Date, however Sometimes you will also need to include a Page Number. For a detailed list of how to reference a variety of quotations, see the Library's Page on Referencing Quotations.


Quoting within an Assignment, Essay, or Report

A Direct quotation:

  • Should be placed in Quotation Marks, followed by the author's surname, year of publication and page number inside Curved Brackets.
    • e.g. "The truth is rarely pure and never simple" (Wilde, 1990, p. 6)
    • e.g. "In some urban classrooms ... if children have grown up as street survivors ... they may come to school ready for a fight to the death" (Rodriguez & Bellanca, p. 135) This is especially evident if the child has been raised in a...
    • Gass and Varonis (1984) found that "the listener's familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message" (p. 85).


An Indirect quotation:

  • Is a citation from a work without directly quoting from it.
  • It is treated in a similar way to a direct quotation but Without the Quotation Marks.
    • e.g. A further analysis of the results taken was undertaken and proved to have a positive impact (O'Connell, 2012)
    • e.g. In 1995 the United States approved the consumption of genetically modified (GM) foods (Diaz & Fridovich-Keil , 2014). Within four years nearly half of the corn, cotton and soybean crops in the United States had been produced using GM techniques, and by 2010 that figure exceeded two-thirds.

A quote Greater then 40 words:

  • Make sure that you Omit Quotation Marks and use a Block Format, in which the quotation is Indented about 5 spaces (1 tab) from the left margin.
  • Also ensure that the quotation is Double Spaced.
    • e.g. John Nicholson (1820) anticipated this effect when discussion farming methods in the nineteenth century:
      • Perhaps it would be well, if some institution were devised, and supported at the expense of the State, which would be so organized as would tend most effectually to produce a due degree of emulation among Farmers, by rewards and honorary distinctions conferred by those who, by their successful experimental efforts and improvements, should render themselves duly entitled to them. (p. 92)


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