For a detailed list referencing a variety of audio-visual sources, see the Library's Page on Referencing Audio-Visual Sources.



Producer's Surname, Initials. (Position), & Director's Surname, Initials. (Position). (Year). Title [Medium of recording]. Place of Origin: Studio or Distributor.

e.g. Grazer, B. (Producer), & Howard, R. (Director). (2001). A beautiful mind[Motion picture]. USA: Universal Studios.

In-text: (Grazer & Howard, 2001)


Television Programme

Producer's surname, Initials. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title [Television broadcast]. Place of Origin: Studio or Distributor.

e.g. Crystal, L. (Executive Producer). (1993, October 11). The MacNeil/Lehrer news hour [Television broadcast]. New York and Washington, DC: Public Broadcasting Service.

In-text: (Crystal, 1993)


Television Series

Producer's surname, Initials. (Producer). (Year). Title [Television series]. Place of Origin: Studio or Distributor.

e.g. Kring, T. (Producer). (2008). Heroes [Television series]. Melbourne, Australia: Seven Corporation.

In-text: (Kring, 2008)


Episode of Television Series

Writer's surname, Initials. (Writer), & Director's surname, Initials. (Director). (Year). Episode title [Television series episode]. In Producer's initials and surname (Producer), Title of series. Place of Origin: Studio or Distributor.

e.g. Emery, T. (Director). (2004). The mango espadrille [Television series episode]. In G. Riley & J Turner (Producers), Kath & Kim. Melbourne, Australia: ABC Television.

In-text: (Emery, 2004)


e.g. Bourke, M. (Writer), & Nasht, S. (Writer). (2012, April 26). The climate debate [Television series episode]. In P. McEvoy (Executive Producer), Q&A. Ultimo, New South Wales: ABC Television.

In-text: (Bourke & Nasht, 2012)


Video Podcast

Producer. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Video podcast]. Retrieved from URL

e.g. National Geographic Society. (Producer). (2008, May 19). Chimp memory beats humans' [Video podcast]. Retrieved from

In-text: (National Geographic Society, 2008)


e.g. Holland, A. (Producer), & Harris, H. (Director). (2008, June 12). Bog man [Video podcast]. Retrieved from

In-text: (Holland & Harris, 2008)


Audio Podcast

Podcaster's Surname, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL

e.g. Hutcheon, J. (2008, June 15). Jane Hutcheon reflects on life in London[Audio podcast]. Retrieved from

In-text: (Hutcheon, 2008)


Sound Recording

Sound recording

Writer, A. (copyright year). Title [Medium of recording]. Location: Label.

e.g. Mahler, G. (1989). Symphony no. 1 in D Major: Titan [CD]. Germany: Deutsche Grammophon.

In-text: (Mahler, 1989)


Track from Sound Recording

Writer, A. (copyright year). Title of the song or music [Recorded by B. B. Artist if different from writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording]. Location: Label. (date of recording if different from copyright date)

e.g. Williamson, J. (2003). The last of the pioneers. On Home among the gum trees [CD]. Pyrmont, NSW: EMI Australia.

In-text: (Williamson, 2003, track 5)


Computer Software

Do not italicise the names of software, programs, or languages. Use title case.



Writer, Initials. (Year). Title (Version) [Medium of software]. Retrieved from URL

e.g. Scott, C. (2011). Treasure hunt - the interactive boardgame (Version 1.1) [Computer software]. Retrieved from

In-text: (Scott, 2011)


e.g. Skyscape, (2011). Skyscape Medical Resources (Version 1.14.8) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from

In-text: (Skyscape, 2011)


No author

Title (Version) [Computer software]. (Year). Retrieved from URL

e.g. Pages (Version 1.5) [Computer software]. (2011). Retrieved from

In-text: (Pages, 2011)


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